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It is scattered, plagued by redundancy, duplication, and absence of serious and effective coordination. It is often neither published or disseminated, nor circulated within a process where researchers and research institutions can exchange, dialogue, build on cumulative knowledge, or adjust to changing development requirements and priorities. In addition, the type of recent research conducted in the region has been a direct response to donor initiatives, and ad hoc commissioned and packaged contracts — which emphasize applied and short term outputs. Consequently, research has been adjusting to unsynchronized needs and demands. Finally, there is no recognition that the revitalizing of research requires the rethinking of educational approaches and of cultural frames of reference (Sid-Ahmed 1999a). Research has been characterized by negligence and anachronism for more than three decades. It lacks clear and viable visions and strategies, creativity, efficient management, and faces enormous financial difficulties. Foremost, what is needed is the optimization of governmental constructive intentions, and commitments to reviving R&D in Egypt. Flaws in the research and knowledge systems of the region have been presented and discussed throughout this publication. They converge toward an ineffective utilization of the already meager scientific assets available, and hence toward a limited impact of scientific output on development efforts as well as policy substance in the region. To help address issues of scientific quality and relevance, one needs to study and evaluate the context of research as well as research processes and outputs. More specifically, the following research areas were proposed. One of the key problems has to do with the privatization of this sector and the lack of national policies and initiatives that place enough emphasis to ICTs. Internet connectivity varies from country-to-country depending on its political system and what the basic infrastructure will allow. Usually the problem is addressed within different ministries or at different levels of government. What we need to do is something similar to what has been done in the USA and other countries with a national policy. We need a national initiative that highlights ICTs as a key technology, and crucial basic building blocks, for national development. Legislative issues present one of the most important challenges as Internet services have been commercially deployed while the legal framework and model for government/private sector partnership have not yet been completely worked out. Internet security and protection of individual privacy need also to be addressed. Empowering the local community to interact effectively with the rest of the world while preserving culture and traditions is one of the first challenges we face. Open access —regardless of age, gender, or educational barriers — must be addressed. A recent survey by Internet Arab world magazine found that the average age of Internet users in the Arab world is twenty-nine, seven years younger than the average age in the USA. Although it is good that Arab youth are accessing the Internet, the number indicates that we do not have enough decision-makers or even middle-managers using the Internet compared to the USA and other developed countries. Furthermore, the survey found that only 4% of respondents were women, the rest being educated males. What are the current areas of research that we are supporting in the field of social and economic development? The first is the field of post-conflict reconstruction where our Peace building and Reconstruction Program Initiative is playing an active role. This is particularly so in Palestine, where the PI is looking at issues such as the development of democratic institutions, state-civil society relationships, donor roles in post-conflict situations, refugees and displaced people. A number of participants observed that research projects in the region often do not reflect — and are not aligned with — the increasing complexity of the development process. In addition, research projects do not address issues of policy relevance and are not geared to work out problems within a policy timescale. The importance of multi-disciplinary approaches was underlined in this regard. Also important is for them to address research topics using a combination of quantitative and qualitative, micro- and macro-, as well as multi-sectoral approaches. The role of IDRC in encouraging such multi-disciplinary and multi-sectoral work, when dealing with complex issues such as poverty, employment, or governance, was stressed. The 1990’s witnessed similar initiatives to develop Islamic Social Sciences. This drive coincided with the resurgence of Islamic social movements during the past three decades. An Islamic Economic Research Center was established in Cairo in the early 1990s to promote studies on Islamic rules governing Islamic business transactions.

While commercially driven, Arab consumer research examined by this author seemed of high professional quality. A savage form of capitalism —with neither the requirements of efficiency nor distributive justice as exercised in mature capitalist societies — is being built in the Third World. The primary motivation is to provide a level playing field, but in reality this only applies to international capital. The irony is that this brand of global capitalism is almost certain to undermine the very prospects for economic growth, let alone development in any meaningful sense. In the words of UNCTAD again, “… liberalization of the world economy has proceeded so far in a lopsided way that tends to prejudice the growth prospects of developing countries…” . The series of advertised corrections to global capitalism, brought about by the aftermath of the recent Asian-cum-Latin crisis, is a belated one. Intermediaries would be responsible for synthesizing the results of work completed by MENA social scientists. On their behalf, they would integrate related research from regional and international organizations as well as outline progress in the implementation of any NGO action plans. Such intermediaries would also develop a set of indicators related to real budget expenditure on each social service on a per capita basis, across MENA countries. This would enhance the sense of competition among policymakers across and within countries of the MENA region. Issues of governance bring in political, judicial, and legislative dimensions to understanding institutional bottlenecks and proposing reforms. Anthropology, demography, and sociology are essential to the understanding of the characteristics of poverty and estimating the response of various segments of population to policy initiatives. Urban planners, education specialists, environment and engineering specialists must also contribute their technical expertise on the how to raise the quality of life. In short, all work within a broader and consistent agenda that pulls a closely knit and converging platform of action together and that meets with the multifaceted challenge of development is urgently required. A second and equally important area of analysis is how to reform and upgrade the existing systems of education, training, health, social security, and other areas that relate to social infrastructure and safety nets. The entire region suffers from technically obsolete and poorly balanced systems that favor the advantaged and neglect the primary services that meet the needs of the poor. The problem of upgrading quality while raising the equity of our social services deserves considerable attention from both specialists and generalists. It also brings to focus the underlying budget constraints at both central and local government levels. In 1995, the Arab states spent 0.2% of their gross national expenditures on R&D (in contrast to the average 3% spent by all states in the world). The increasing numbers of university graduates are not matched by budgetary allocations to higher education and it is onerous to speak about return on investment in academic research (Sid-Ahmed 1999a). In addition, liberalization and privatization politics have created problems of sustained national and international funding. Public research institutions and institutions of higher education are becoming seriously under-funded and impoverished. Although the role of the private sector in knowledge production is increasing, it is not achieving its full potential and not coordinating with national institutions. In the Arab world, S&T in general, and R&D in particular, are not institutionalized. Nor are they part of well-defined, coherent public/national and regional research strategies or pertinent conceptual frameworks. Ongoing research lacks a solid infrastructure of basic science on which to draw.

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If you’re getting few results, try a more general search term. If you’re getting irrelevant result, try a more narrow and specific term. Mila, daughter of Arab-Jewish actor and theatre director Juliano Mer-Khamis , addresses her father’s funeral procession at The Almidan Theatre in… The Corrie family lawyer Hussein Abu Hussein is seated in the foreground as sister Sarah Corrie, father Craig Corrie and mother Cindy Corrie of US… Sister Sarah Corrie, family lawyer Hussein Abu Hussein, mother Cindy Corrie and father Craig Corrie of US peace activist Rachel Corrie give a press… He is currently working as a Development Advisor with Environmental Quality International’s . Saad Eddin Ibrahim is one of the Arab world’s leading social scientists, activists and public affairs commentators; and a professor of Political Sociology at the American University in Cairo. He received his PhD From the University of Washington in 1968 and has authored and edited some 35 books and more than 100 scholarly articles.

  • One manifestation of this type of deprivation is the lack of effective and integrated support to small- and micro-enterprises.
  • This work on traditional knowledge and indigenous property rights is very important for MENA, and it should have high priority for distribution in Arabic language publications.
  • Decision-makers should be made aware that per capita water modeling could provide a more appropriate method of distribution than the division of gross resources.
  • Academic and intellectual freedoms are routinely denied and institution-building is thoroughly politicized.
  • It has important and longstanding trade ties with the rest of the world, particularly Europe and the Mediterranean region.
  • Dear wife of Bob, and loving mother of Sheila McConnell, Debra Cote , Kimberley McConnell, and Cheryl Cain .

They import 30% of their cereal consumption, with this proportion expected to rise to 36% by 2020, despite a projected doubling of local production . But the proportion of Arab land that is arable — 4% — is less than half of what is available in other regions. The per capita share of arable land in MENA is only 0.224 hectares, and much of this is marginal and not fully cultivable . Without exception, MENA countries have now begun to implement economic reforms to stimulate private investment. The measures adopted so far include privatization, the passage of business-friendly commercial legislation, and the offering of incentives to foreign investors. These moves have already brought results in the form of increased growth rates, particularly in Egypt, Tunisia and Morocco. However, MENA’s unrepresentative governments have tended to pander to wealthy industrialists and foreign investors rather than to try and encourage the small-scale enterprises that actually employ most people. Liberalization moves have often appeared hesitant and grudging. In a world where it is easy for transnational corporations to be based in any country for their operations, MENA’s delay in introducing economic liberalization may have long-term consequences in lost competitiveness. MENA is extremely rich in some key natural resources, notably oil, but suffers dangerous scarcities in water and arable land. The region has had a turbulent modern history, and continues to endure protracted conflicts and political instability. This has given rise to social currents— such as Islamic fundamentalism — that feel alienated from and are often hostile to the current international order. These interlinked factors all serve to make MENA’s future development a matter of crucial importance to the rest of the world. The need for regional development intermediaries to act on behalf of regional social scientists and organize a channel of communication for networking among themselves, and with development agencies and key policymakers in the region. The purpose should also be to create a self-sustaining and growing core of well-informed policymakers who are regularly acquainted with the work on hand. Their sources of information comes from their network via regular meetings, a quality newsletter that disseminates ideas, research results, and practical experiences. The newsletter uses non-technical language, as do policy briefs on specific issues. The poor have relatively larger household sizes and experience higher unemployment rates, especially for women. In fact, studies for Egypt and other MENA countries show that women tend to be the first victims of economic reform, not only in terms of losing jobs but also in being pulled out of the education system. It has been shown that women suffer from a chronically low participation rate in the MENA labor forces, and that households headed by women are much more highly represented among the poor in urban and rural regions. The severity of the problem of poverty cannot be overstated. Those who suffer are not only those in our present, but also in our future generations. What is at stake is the social cohesion of the nations in the region; their breakdown seriously threatens stability and invites both extremist and fundamentalist expansion. There is a growing need to rethink research within coherent national and regional strategies, and within adapted conceptual frameworks. Research results need to be published, disseminated and circulated so that researchers and research institutions can exchange ideas and build on cumulative knowledge, and adjust to needs and to well-thought-out development priorities. Several experiences of cooperation in the region pave the way for such linkages. Integration plays a role in environment and society-building. Environmental problems are becoming increasingly connected at a regional level, thereby compelling common solutions and strategies. Social problems and issues of democratic governance can be more effectively addressed through exchange and dialogue. Successful models of these types of communication and dialogue exist but are not easily accessible. There are numerous potentials for sustained economic growth, social development, environmental protection, and democratic governance. We have a number of ways in which we carry out this consultative interaction. We are fortunate that, at the level of the governance of IDRC, we have a Board of Governors with members from all regions of the world who set IDRC policy and strategy, and who have a broad overview of their region.

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This argument provides a rationalization for the poor quality of research product funded by some foreign donors, but it does not apply to all. The first three factors represent the inputs to the research environment, while the fourth is the output. Research on research institutions may sound like a tautological luxury. To carry out the above-mentioned, nine new research priorities — along with continuing research agenda from the 20th century — new breeds of social research institutions must be developed. Research on research institution-building must appropriate part of the agenda for the new century. Here we are dealing with the infrastructure of future research. Several allusions were made to budding new research networks in new centers. Being in embryonic stages, monitoring and evaluating them constitutes is a worthwhile research priority. Already appropriating part of the Arab research agenda in the 1990s, the processes of civil society and democratization are bound to increase in the new century. Both advances and setbacks deserve as much research attention. Work in the area overlaps research on the quests for inclusion, participation, and conflict resolution. With the massive structural economic adjustment, integration in global economy, and the anticipated stiffening competition on world scale, there are bound to be far more social casualties than we have already seen in the 1980s and 1990s. Appropriate safety nets will have to be among the priorities of policy research in the new century. Participation of the dispossessed and marginalized groups in public life. This particularly affects women, youth, the poor, the disabled, ethnic and minority groups. This is a predilection of Western-centric Arab social scientists who still continue to take their cues from their Western counterparts. The broad conceptual orientation loosely subsumed under postmodernism has its followers among Arab social scientists. But it is yet to translate itself into more usable research frameworks. The only possible exception to this is its “de-constructive” mode of discourse analysis. The closest thing to it is “participatory research,” which does away with a priori research assumptions and research techniques. Postmodernist debates are common in the Maghreb countries, especially Morocco and Tunisia. Most who were well versed in the above theoretical paradigms were hardly equipped or even interested in the type of empirical field work needed for social development schemes, and vice versa. The result has been often endless theoretical debates without empirical findings to settle or upgrade them. In some areas, there is abundant empirical data that has no guiding theoretical system which can decipher it. Occasionally, Arab social researchers may be well versed in appropriate methodology for the case at hand, yet take too long to complete the tasks required in time. This often leads decision-makers or implementers to go ahead using their common sense and best judgment without waiting for the research findings, which makes the completed research become irrelevant. But irrelevance could also be built into conceptual or theoretical orientation for the development problem at hand . But this does not seem to operate in the case of Arab social research in general, particularly in those areas of maximum demand, or social development. The weaknesses of proper response to dire need take many forms and possess several motivations. In the 1982 IDRC report, it was noted that the volume and quality of the Arab social-science research output displayed a wide range of quality — across countries, disciplines, and even sub-disciplines. The variance was often contingent on a single leader in the institution. Twenty years later, the range of quality and quantity of research output is far wider than before.

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Lee died peacefully on December 13, 2021, in Ottawa at the age of 96 with family by her side. ABSON, Harold W Veteran WWII Suddenly at home, on Sunday, December 5, 2004, at the age of 86. Dear father of Irene , Ronald , Judy , John , Cindy and David . Edythe Abron (neé Levinter), beloved wife of the late Murray Abron. Dear sister and sister-in-law of Murray and Adrienne Levinter, Molly Zorn, Florence Valensky and the late Evelyn Accardi. ABRON, Murray Peacefully at age 93 on Monday, October 10, 2005 at Toronto Western Hospital. Murray Abron, beloved and cherished husband of Edythe nee Levinter. Dear brother of the late Dr. Rose Lahman, and Oscar Abron. Devoted grandfather of Deborah Drache and Michael Fagen,… Peacefully, in Montreal, surrounded by his loving family on Tuesday, December 13, 2016. Dear father and father-in-law of Ira and Joanna, and the late Lynn. Cherished Zaida of Daniel and Evelyn, Jonathan and Zivi, and Jordan. ABRAMS, Bernard Died peacefully on August 1st, 2002 in his 93rd year. With his characteristic dry wit and penchant for gags, Bill always brought smiles to the faces of his family, friends and neighbours. At “Bill’s Joke and Magic Shop”, everyone passing under the marquee of the rabbit pulling a man out of a… ABRAHAMSE, Karl W. Retired Major Salvation Army Peacefully at his daughter Shirley’s home in Newboro on Monday, August 23rd, 2010 at the age of 87 years. Karl will be sadly missed by his beloved wife of 59 years, Major Myrtle Abrahamse. Loved father of Rosemary Wright of Johannesburg, South Africa,… ABRAHAM, Chicry Peacefully in hospital on Thursday, May 8, 2008 at the age of 75. Dear brother of Lilly and predeceased by Michael, Kayo, Nicholas and Touffic.

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Yet, while governments can no longer maintain promises of free education and health care, initiatives to share costs with the private sector have been poorly articulated. In Egypt, for example, despite strong interest from international donors, reform of the health sector has been stymied by lack of government commitment. In Lebanon, a tradition of reliance on private education is now being undercut by the fact that fewer Lebanese can afford its cost. Any approach to the poverty question must begin by addressing gaps in knowledge and awareness of the scope of the problem. To begin with, there is an urgent need for coordinated efforts to improve, standardize and deepen statistics-gathering capacity. National statistical agencies can be helped with expertise and technology. At the same time, independent social studies should be encouraged to be more policy-oriented. Research should be aimed at raising the efficiency of development efforts by steering poverty interventions toward the neediest sectors. In this context, there may be room for the elaboration of new social research techniques. For example, traditional analyses of poverty based solely on expenditure patterns are often distorting — they attempt to quantify what is in effect a quality. Poverty remains at the heart of the development challenge. Economic growth and technological progress are proceeding at varying if slow paces in most of our MENA countries, and yet we can observe that the poverty gap is growing both in relative and absolute terms. The departure of a strong and dominant public sector has meant fewer jobs for the educated middle and lower classes, and inferior work conditions in the informal sector. Meanwhile, higher unemployment due to structural adjustment is accompanied by a decline in the living standards of a sizeable proportion of households. Such a decline directly affects the extended family system. As a result of globalization the role of the state is changing. It is shifting from producer and planner to facilitator and arbitrator. Instead, it pursues an explicit or implicit industrial policy, targeting sectors with dynamic advantage and promoting clustering of enterprises into formal production networks. It is reforming its administrative and legislative structure, while promoting the reduction of transactions cost so that private agents can expand their operations. It is revising its social contract and encouraging the process of democratization. The “model” state is also retrenching from those activities that can better be performed by the private sector. But, at the same time, it is redeploying its resources in favor of social spending for the poor. Only few MENA countries are seeing serious work on all fronts, but such work will truly transform the state into the model that is needed for the next millennium. With rare exceptions, the conduct of research in the Arab world is restricted in terms of independent inquiry, data access and collection, exchange and dissemination. The situation of research is rudimentary when the production of knowledge touches on politically sensitive issues. In such cases, the publication of official data is censored and access to media is effectively prohibited. Specifically in this regard, critical social science is very difficult to undertake. Consequently the connection of research to advocacy and to informing and influencing government policies is very weak and lobby channels are not effective. The primary purpose of the name simulation studies is to gather data about possible risks of confusion involving a proposed brand name in a simulated clinical scenario. The information gathered during the name simulation studies is collated and assessed along with the names identified during the search of reference databases in the last step of the name review process, Synthesize. Mr El-Meehy developed the Ministry’s draft National Policy for MSME Development in Egypt. He also developed a plan for the downscaling of Egypt’s banking sector, so as to expand the provision of financial services to MSMEs. Mr El-Meehy is currently providing assistance in policy formulation for MSME development to a variety of national and international organizations. He has authored a number of papers and articles on several social, developmental, and political issues.

Thus, it is much more appropriate for neighbourhood or community reclamation systems. Naturally, it is possible to reclaim black water too, but there must be so many controls imposed, and such careful maintenance of the systems, that we believe it is inappropriate for local use. We already have a few gray water research projects, and we are looking for more. Development of resources is the net outcome of the interaction between these three systems. All worldwide environmental problems lie in either disparities between technologies of the biosphere, or between the social sphere and the biosphere. This simple model can provide us with a progressive tool which can help identify the problem we are facing. Development is the management of the interaction between the three systems. Sustainable development is the maintenance of a balance between them. Beyond the political significance of the 1997 election, there were two major societal achievements. For the very first time, credibility was given to a career in politics; secondly, civil society had been reinforced. Prior to 1997, anyone who became active politically was regarded with suspicion. In fact, political involvement was considered taboo, and getting involved could damage a person’s career.

Vol. 9 No. E ( : E – Public Health

Sponsorship of these efforts must, however, take into account several overriding considerations. Therefore, multi-scenario models must be adopted, and creative thinking encouraged. Very large volumes of international aid are pouring into the WBGS, with literally hundreds of agencies involved. This makes it vital that a high degree of coordination and information-sharing be maintained. Lastly, the Palestinian territories have suffered three decades of isolation. For this reason, it is important that development initiatives should promote links between the WBGS and the rest of the region, including beneficial contacts between Israelis and Palestinians. The conducting of opinion polls and the wider dissemination of survey results on social questions should be encouraged. For example, there exists a broad consensus in Lebanon regarding vital reforms in governance, yet these attitudes are seldom expressed through the existing political apparatus. At the same time, there are no agencies which have the means or commitment to sponsor opinion surveys. As an accelerating process of economic reform and development reshapes MENA countries, poor governance is increasingly seen as a key hindrance to further progress. It is often observed of the region that state administrative capacity and responsiveness are largely stagnant, while societies themselves are undergoing rapid change. This is leading to what one long-time observer of the region describes as trying to run with one short and one long leg. Another key research issue is the impact of structural adjustment on poverty. Development of macroeconomic methods to reduce these negative impacts have not received sufficient attention. Programs such as Egypt’s Social Fund are laudable, but they tend to sideline an issue which should be mainstreamed into government economic policy. For example, many MENA governments rely largely on regressive taxes — such as customs duties and flat sales taxes — to finance their budgets. Obviously, these taxation regimes unfairly punish the poor. Governments can be assisted to devise and apply more equitable means of taxation, such as progressive income taxes and property taxes. Innovative and equitable measures for cost-sharing in the provision of social services also needs further exploration. Small- and micro-sized enterprises throughout the region are also burdened by structural deficiencies, such as lack of access to technology; lack of marketing, accounting and managerial expertise; and lack of access to information. Most such enterprises operate in relative isolation from the broader economy. Their relations with suppliers and markets are often personal, with work carried out on an order basis rather than through continuous production and sales efforts. For this reason, potential efficiencies through cluster linkages between these companies are often poorly exploited, while large-scale national industries rarely subcontract to local small- and micro-sized enterprises. Despite considerable improvements in quality of life indicators for MENA over the past three decades, the region still faces serious social problems. Indeed, social pressures have increased during the past decade as a result of continued rapid population growth and urbanization, compounded by declining oil prices and the impact of structural adjustment programs. Population growth has produced both pressures of urban expansion and pressure to expand cultivated areas in order to meet increased food consumption. Arab countries currently import some $25 billion of food a year.

They moved very quickly from what one calls “adab al-mehna” to an Iqbalist literature. That literature is more political, indigenous, and while it is centered on the liberty of religious interpretation, above all, it emphasizes compromise and political pragmatism. This is why the Islamists have not explicitly questioned the monarchical statue. There have been no major violent confrontations with Islamists since they started in 1973. The means whereby autonomous organizations representing MSMEs can be created and a collective consciousness fostered, which will in turn support MSMEs in furthering their interests, constitute a critical research area. An important reason for the isolation of MSMEs is their mode of operation. But there is also a need for a general political reform to open avenues that are not necessarily MSME-specific, but that could be used by them to further their interests. In a related way, the lack of coordination between NGOs, banks and donors, which are financing the MSMEs, has been noted as a source of MSME weakness. The need for mechanisms at country levels, to ensure better understanding and coordination of MSME programs, and to avoid overlap and duplication, has been underlined. The political agenda includes the issues of governance, desertification control, and unemployment among young graduates. In the case of Morocco, despite the government’s efforts to improve basic infrastructure, housing, health, and employment, large deficits are accumulating. Indeed, they are this is accelerating the process of impoverishment and marginalization. Political limitations still exist in Moroccan, such that sharing power remains symbolic. As well, almost by definition, the effects of the experience mean a slow, albeit reversible transformation of the political culture. Notwithstanding this, the real challenge facing Morocco and other Arab countries that are undergoing transition is an economic one. Even in richer countries like Saudi Arabia, the Industrial Development Fund targets only those establishments licensed by the Ministry of Industry and Electricity. The latter only licenses those enterprises whose capital is more than one million SR. Rather than learning from the mistakes of the other countries in the region, it is interesting to note how the Palestinian government is replicating the same patterns that are widespread among the regimes of the region. Finally, it should be noted that while there are several attempts at regulatory reform in several countries , the process has been largely focused on large enterprises. In Palestine, where an entire body of laws is being created from scratch, reports indicate that the entire process is aimed at large businesses.

This relatively higher publication productivity, however, can represent a waste of potential and be a forerunner of an even more extensive brain drain of Arab scientific talent. In order to construct a welfare-maximizing alternative to the present development predicament, mass poverty must be understood as a product of complex structural processes embedded in the political economy of Arab countries. Within this complexity, identifying the key causes of poverty is a precondition for formulating an effective anti-poverty strategy. Growth leading to poverty eradication should be the overarching objective of development policy in the Arab region. It is generally acknowledged that large-scale generation of productive and gainful job opportunities— in short full employment, an essential objective in its own right — is a valid strategic path to this objective. Full employment should be taken to mean good jobs for all who can work. Sometimes, on authority of the World Bank, the incredibly low level of income-expenditure poverty of 4% is quoted. In view of the miserable growth record indicated above, simple common sense would lead to questioning the validity of this estimate. Seen in a different light, Egypt has about one-fourth of the region’s population. The most credible estimate of income-expenditure poverty in 1995 is 44% . Thus, the contribution of Egypt alone to the regional level of poverty in the mid-1990s is about 11%. And, what about poverty in the rest of Arab countries, especially Iraq, Sudan and Somalia? The same reference shows that 44% is a gross underestimate of the level of poverty in Egypt. In many countries that are undergoing structural adjustment, the poverty affliction is intensifying. In addition, economic output is being increasingly unequally distributed, resulting in widening disparity in income, wealth — and power. Worst of all, these conditions undermine the prospects for future economic growth. By comparison, the evocative term “Arab Homeland,” which is used in Arabic, is laden with cultural and functional connotations. The common language, an essential medium for knowledge-generation and utilization, is a potent reason. A distinguished history of achievement in science at the zenith of Arab civilization is another reason — albeit used at times as the proverbial “lamppost” by a drunkard, i.e. for support rather than illumination.

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The effects resulting from name confusability, or confusion caused or contributed by non-name attributes are identified and discussed by the team. Each participant processes only one transaction to avoid learning the drug name which would bias the results. However, one participant may leave a verbal and a written communication and each communication may be picked up by more than one participant. The number of scenarios can be greater than the number of participants. A report summarizing all the findings from the LASA brand name assessment, i.e., the Search and Simulate steps and the FMEA, must be submitted to Health Canada. Furthermore, a cumulated list of all the names generated from every component of the assessment process including those that were eliminated with rationale, i.e., the Search and Simulate steps and the FMEA, must be submitted. A final rationale for the approval of the proposed name for marketing in Canada is to be presented. Where certain findings are excluded, an explanation must be provided as to why they do not present an obstacle to approval. Health Canada will conduct a search of the Drug Submission Tracking System to identify any brand names in the submission review process that could be candidates for confusion with the proposed name. If the proposed brand name is already marketed in another country, sponsors are to search the published literature, as well as medication error databases, and submit the results of those searches to Health Canada. The goal is to identify any previously reported name confusion errors. This information should be gathered via a search of several sources, which can include internal sponsor databases, ISMP/ISMP Canada published reports and databases, MedMarx database, PubMed, and the International Pharmaceutical Abstracts. Below is a list of additional factors that are given consideration by Health Canada when making a decision about the acceptability of a proposed brand name. Although these factors will not lead to an automatic rejection of the proposed name, they will require the sponsor to provide a rationale supporting why this approach can be used without the risk of being misleading or resulting in confusion. The diagram below, Figure 1, outlines the process to be followed in completing a brand name assessment. Health Canada will move forward with the use of the proper/common name and the drug submission will be issued a NOC or DIN if the proposed brand name is the only outstanding issue with the drug submission. Our success lies in building a long term relationship and delivering results quickly and efficiently for a “much lower cost”. We are experts in locating the best possible suitable executive and management candidates for placements in all types of hospitality organizations around the world. Through our matchless database, communication and networking, over the world, we provide our clients with the most skillful candidates. MCI The Doctor’s Office™ are medical centres in GTA, Ontario and Alberta, with convenient evening and weekend hours, healthcare insurance plans, emergency appointments and some wal… We offer the best services on Doctors, Medical Clinics, Doctors in Mississauga. Help to the world’s leading medical experts, Connecting people who have a personal health challenge … It is with great sadness that the family announces the passing of Stan Acres on Wednesday, February 6, 2013, peacefully at the Hospice at May Court after a brief illness. Stan was the gentle, caring husband of Liza and a kind, supportive father to Sue and Judy… ACRES, Anson Wade Peacefully in hospital on October 13th, 2002, surrounded by family, at the age of 29. Cherished grandson of Mary Agnes Acres and Claire Lavergne. ACRES, Brian Gilbert At his home on the Scotch Line, Perth surrounded by the love of his family on Monday, December 14th, 2009 Brian G. Acres at the age of 56. ; cherished father and grandfather of Angie VanWingerden and their children Eila, Jack and Willem and Christina… ACRES, Alice Peacefully in hospital at Arnprior on Saturday morning, July 19th, 2008. Dearly loved mother of Colin Acres of Calgary, AB., Glenn of Kingston and Kay Dunthorne …

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Just because this sector requires support, but also because governments that are in the process of negotiating trade arrangements are often unaware of the implications for MSMEs. Ways of helping MSMEs to meet the challenge of greater competition must be explored. Local agencies that offer advice and technical know-how — particularly in fields such as packaging, industrial standards, and micro-marketing — should be supported. In this context, it is important to remember that the lack of detailed knowledge about the composition of the MSME sector remains a major handicap for such efforts. In general, throughout the MENA region, the impact of macroeconomic policies at the small scale is poorly understood. In the absence of government initiatives to investigate this question, it is imperative that independent economic research be supported. Regarding the promotion of small- and micro-sized enterprises, a major obstacle is scarcity of knowledge about the sector. This holds true for all MENA countries, but there is a particular research gap in comparative regional overviews to sort successful interventions from failed ones. For instance, the work of Palestine’s Development Research Center— which operates as a full-range service center supplying training, marketing, technical and financial know-how to small enterprises— is unknown outside that country. Realize that laws need changing to allow micro-credit operations to proliferate. For instance, an outdated Egyptian rule requiring the personal signature of the Chairman of an NGO on every loan check makes it physically impossible for NGOs to sponsor large-scale credit schemes directly (Ministry of Economy 1998). Also, lobbying has, in some cases, produced favorable responses from the private sector. In Morocco, for instance, five commercial banks are supporting microcredit schemes with interest-free loans to the credit agencies. It is not difficult to construct a rather negative catalogue of problems for MENA. Moreover, there are many signs that it is on the verge of a very important transition — politically, economically, and socially. The coming decade is likely to prove a crucial period in determining the region’s long-term future. This presents both increasing challenges and opportunities for development interventions. Surging populations have also placed tremendous stress on often meager natural resources. Across the region, fresh water resources per capita have fallen by half in the past 30 years. Pressure to grow more food has led to very poor land-use patterns.

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They were supposed to promote the establishment of those infrastructures and sectors of activity that could underpin development, induce the private sector to get involved, and accompany it along the road to modernization and growth. Long protected and sheltered, private enterprise was incapable of asserting its independence and taking its rightful place as a factor in social change, as well as in the creation of innovative and efficient economic structures. In addition, the curricula should be reviewed constantly to ensure that up-to-date knowledge in basic sciences, universal history and geography is reflected. At the university level, the science courses that cover new technology should be taught. In short, the undergraduate and graduate education in Egypt do not provide the appropriate training for quality researchers neither in social nor in basic sciences. However, to improve the quality of research produced in Egypt, it takes much more than just funding. The quality of research is a function of both the scientific background and training of researchers and the research environment. Overhauling the education system is needed in this respect, as mentioned above. As well, the research environment must be improved, for example, by acknowledging the importance of research for growth and development, or providing adequate national funding for research activity. In addition, a coherent national policy for S&T is needed to address national priorities in this vital area. Some of the private research centers are totally financed by foreign funding, such as the Egyptian Center for Economic Studies and the Group for Democratic Development. The most active sources for foreign funding of research in social sciences in Egypt are USAID, Ford Foundation, Konrad Adenauer Foundation, and Friederich Ebbert Foundation. There are other foreign sources that finance research in social sciences, but on smaller scale.

Even so, MENA is more dependent on food imports than any other region. Urbanization has been rapid and haphazard, creating serious problems of sanitation and solid waste. Indeed, economic liberalism needs not only to be balanced by social and economic justice; environmental protection must now be added to the equation of sustainable development. Like the other developing regions of the world, the Arab region suffers from acute development problems which have not been fully assessed, and which require systematic appreciation and study. In any event, the subjects you are covering in this meeting are both very interesting and very important. I stress IDRC as a Canadian institution in spite of its international pedigree — not just because I happen to be the Canadian Ambassador — but because IDRC has at least two particularly Canadian characteristics. Though Canadian-funded, its internationalism is ensured not only in its mandate, but also in its direction through an international board. As a middle-power sharing the North American Continent with the now-remaining world superpower, we recognize that an international outlook and presence is critical for Canada. IDRC is a manifestation of that outlook; one in which I take particular pride. However, this is not to say that IDRC’s role is to promote Canadian government policy; quite the opposite. With its international board, it is independent of the Government of Canada and guards that independence jealously. I have to say, however, that its very creation, independence, purpose and style — particularly its democratic and open approach — reflect the values of the people of Canada. Last, but not least, is the question of genuine peace in the region, which remains plagued by a turbulent modern history, protracted conflicts and political instability. This particularly relates to the Palestinian-Israeli conflict, which not only impedes development avenues in Palestine, but, to varying degrees, in the whole region. A mutually satisfactory resolution could lead to a very different climate for sustainable development, economic growth, and political stability. The weakness of representative, accountable, and democratic governments in addition to bureaucratic bottlenecks threaten already bleak development prospects. Indeed, the Algerian experience carries dangers of regional and international spillovers. This guidance is intended to provide Health Canada with objective information in a consistent format. The intent is that the availability of better evidence about potential confusions will allow Health Canada to make more informed decisions, thereby protecting the public from the consequences of medication errors due a drug’s brand name. In preparation for the FMEA, sponsors are to prepare a table that lists all the drug names that were identified across the search and the simulation tests that could be confused with the proposed brand name. After having listed the names, the sponsor will provide a rationale as to why the names will be included or excluded from the FMEA, e.g., the name is of a disinfectant or veterinary product. The number of scenarios tested will depend on the submitted medication-use process map and the identification of key usage pathways for the product. Sponsors will be required to submit the findings from at least 5 medication-use process simulations. These can be single replications of at least 5 scenarios, or multiple replications of single scenarios. The scenarios can be played out by multiple individuals, but each individual must only ‘process’ the proposed name once to avoid familiarity and learning. A minimum of 100 Canadian healthcare professionals must participate in the medication-use simulations unless a strong case can be made for a smaller number due to the specialised nature of the product and its intended users. Although the submitted process map are to be comprehensive, simulations do not need to involve all mapped pathways. Key pathways are to be identified according to the most common use settings and circumstances as well as the highest potential risk situations. The human-computer interface occurs in many areas of the medication-use system-in healthcare facilities, community pharmacies and in doctors’ offices. The process map needs to include, where applicable, the use of computers and electronic information. An example of a medication-use process map is presented in Figure 2, below. A proposed brand name must pass the initial brand name review to be considered for approval. An affirmative response to any of the questions one through seven will result in a proposed name failing the initial brand name review. In these circumstances, Health Canada will contact the Sponsor to request an alternate brand name, accompanied by a LASA brand name assessment, if applicable. Health Canada will review the information submitted and make the decision to approve or reject the proposed brand name. Some proposed brand names have undergone a global development and testing process with the goal of identifying a global brand name.

R&D has become a precondition for coping with the challenges of globalization as well as the association with Europe. The ability to be innovative and imaginative in the face of new technologies is fundamental to ensuring economic competitiveness and social progress. The almost complete absence of research cooperation with other Arab countries also helps to marginalize the use of the language. The cooperation that has just begun with certain joint projects shared by Tunisia and Morocco is being conducted wholly in French. Patents registered by individuals should not be included in the technological statistics, because they are not continuous, structured, systematic or institutional in character. Despite this high estimate of resources devoted to research, they are inadequate and fall far short of the needs of such an important activity. Spending on research is only 0.15% of GDP, compared with 0.34% in Egypt, 1.32% in Asian countries, 2% in the EC and 2.8% in the USA. Similarly, Moroccan annual R&D spending per capita is only US $2.40, compared with US $2.60 in Egypt, US $275 in Israel, US $595 in Japan and US $630 in the USA . Resources from research contracts and international cooperation account for a mere 4.5% of the total research budget. In addition, the Centre des Sciences et Techniques de I’Espace of the Mohammédia school of engineering has established a national inter-university network to develop research in this area. The main accomplishments of 1996 and 1997 included the creation of a ground station that can receive signals from a National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration low-earth-orbit satellite. The institutional organization of scientific research in Morocco is notable for its widely dispersed character. It is composed of a system whose components appear heterogeneous, yet which operate in an anarchy of multipurposed agencies. These varied and disparate elements do not possess cohesive structure. Therefore, the system does not have a set strategy or an approach whereby it can achieve those objectives expected of it. The reason for this is there has been no consistent effort to plan and coordinate research — despite the existence of the CNCPRS — an institution that was designed to do just this. Both documents merely state that teacher-researchers contribute to the development of basic, applied and technological research and to the exploitation of its results. Despite these positives, Morocco’s R&D sector suffers numerous deficiencies, attributable mainly to the lack of a clearly defined research policy, lack of funds, and lack of structures to guide, plan, coordinate, evaluate, and promote research. Despite the rising trend in research expenditure in Egypt, it is still very low if we compare it with the developed countries as well as with the newly industrialized countries like South Korea and Singapore. As shown in Table 4, the share of research expenditure in GDP is above 2% in the sample of the developed countries in the Table, reaching 3.4% in Sweden. In South Korea and Singapore, it is 2.8% and 1.1% respectively. Some argue that the ratio of research expenditure to GDP should not fall below the critical threshold of 1%, otherwise investment in R&D is a waste (UNESCO 1998; p.176). Distribution of research expenditure by source of funds in some developing and developed countries in the 1990s and its share in GDP. Those represent the researchers and the support staff who work in the research activity. Sectoral allocation of research expenditure and research personnel in some developing and developed countries in the 1990s. The research product (its quality and relevance to the country’s priorities and challenges).

Loved mother of Marie Abbass , Jim , Terry and Mark Abbass all of Smiths Falls. ABATE, Vincent Peacefully at home, Friday, October 2, 2009 at the age of 89. Cherished Nonno of Alicia, Marlene, Alexander, Julia, Demitra and Athena. Fondly remembered by many nieces and nephews in Canada and Italy…. The Financial Services Commission of Ontario issues licences authorizing persons to conduct business as insurance agents. An insurance licence is issued by FSCO for a two-year term. Search university’s degree verification database to obtain accurate student’s graduation credentials. This page lists the names of individuals who were approved to graduate as of May 26, 2022. While every effort is made to ensure that this is true and correct, the official university student record supersedes all information published here. The university regrets that names added to graduation lists after this date may not be included. Fidaa al-Shaar and his father Majid al-Shaar , Druze residents of Majd al-Shams, in the Israeli occupied Golan heights, wave for people who came to… The father, mother and sister of Rachel Corrie, a US activist run over by an Israeli bulldozer during a demonstration in Gaza in 2003, arrive at the… The father, mother and sister of Rachel Corrie, a US activist run over by an Israeli bulldozer during a demonstration in Gaza in 2003, attend the… Shalom Hen, the father of eight-day-old Ofir Hen, holds his child during a circumcision ceremony by the local Rabbi inside a bomb shelter on July 26,… Israeli soldiers, friends and family, father and brother gather at the grave of Staff Sergeant Gal Kobi during his funeral in the military cemetery,… The wife and the father of Israeli Air Force man Lt. Nir Lakrif one of the six Israeli soldiers killed in a helicopter crash during a military drill… The bomb blast that killed 54 people on Jerusalem’s Ben Yehuda Street left five-year-old Rahel Meyouhas the only survivor of her family of five. Lebanon’s Maronite Patriarch Bechara al-Rahi , addresses supporters in Diman, his summer residence in north Lebanon, as a number of Christians… Milla, the daughter of Arab-Jewish actor and theatre director Juliano Mer-Khamis, stands next to her father’s coffin during his funeral procession on… Sister Sarah Corrie, father Craig Corrie and mother Cindy Corrie of US peace activist Rachel Corrie speak to their lawyer Hussein Abu Hussein as they… Lawyer Hussein Abu Hussein is seated in the foreground as sister Sarah Corrie, father Craig Corrie and mother Cindy Corrie of US peace activist… Browse 95 my father from haifa stock photos and images available or start a new search to explore more stock photos and images. Streamline your workflow with our best-in-class digital asset management system. Organise, control, distribute, and measure all of your digital content. Access the best of Getty Images and iStock with our simple subscription plan. Millions of high-quality images, video, and music options await you. In light of the drawbacks in the current conventional research systems, it is important to support other approaches. We are also looking now at the prospect of whether the ACACIA program can be expanded to incorporate the MENA region. I have read articles evaluating Egypt’s experience with computer education that discovered that students are not interested because it doesn’t translate into grades.

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Now I will return to the four PIs and offer some examples of their work. The first PI is Cities Feeding People, which is a fancy way of saying urban agriculture. When that PI was started, the most important issue was convincing people that there is such as thing as urban agriculture. IDRC took on work that was little known, and found itself on the cutting edge. As a result, IDRC has – along with a couple of other donor agencies – now ensured that urban agriculture is widely recognized as a major part of the development agenda. Item 4 is particularly active in this region and devotes nearly half its resources to MENA. It is also the one in which I work when I am not managing the larger program, so I will naturally have a little more to say about it. The MENA region lies in the southern section of the Mediterranean and is part of the world drylands (arid, semi-arid, and dry sub-humid climates).

  • However, just because the state has the responsibility for empowering the poor through provision of capital does not mean that it assumes the role of directly providing of goods and services.
  • In Morocco, R&D policy will be based on a reorganization of types of research.
  • He is currently working as a Development Advisor with Environmental Quality International’s .
  • Though social sciences are quite “old” in the region, nothing similar seems to exist in the case of social science.

Research activities are modest in the other sectors, such as fisheries with 4%, construction and public works with 3%, and environment with 3%. Also note the lack of research in the new technologies, including informatics, and yet such research is not expensive and the results can generate substantial revenue. Evidence of this truth is found in the magnitude of cooperation between Morocco and Europe in R&D. This is a dominant force —particularly in the public sector — whose relations are exclusively with such countries as France, Spain and Belgium. Cooperation with the United States is marginal and limited to the private sector. However, cooperation with Canada is beginning to grow, through the IDRC. It should be said that the historical, linguistic and cultural ties that bind Morocco and Europe serve only to reinforce the domination by Europe in the area of R&D. Of the 910 research units and 118 research establishments surveyed in 1995 , the public sector accounted for 90%, the semi-public for 9% and the private sector for only 1%. Postsecondary education alone accounts for 80% of the total number of research units. Diagnosis is difficult because conditions in the various establishments contrast sharply. For example, the main centres of excellence possess competent staff, plus substantial financial and technical resources. But there are institutions that lack even the most basic amenities. This is reflected in wide disparities in the level of scientific output, in terms of both publications and patents.

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